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Williams argues that the notion of morality should be abandoned altogether and be replaced with “ethical”. Free will and moral responsibility seem to be mere illusions. Moral luck addresses moral responsibility, as agent’s and their actions seem to be a product… Addiction appears to be a deeply moralized concept. Actions seem no longer assignable to individual agents as sources but become instead components of the flux of events in the world of which the agent is a part." In his essay "Moral Luck," Nagel is pessimistic about finding morally responsible agents in a world that views agents exteranlly, reducing them to happenings, to sequences of events, following natural laws, whether deterministic or indeterministic. Nagel believes that problem of moral luck is that people judge other people actions based on factors that they cannot control. Eliminating doubt of one’s moral agency, your ability to make judgments based on your notion of right and wrong, is relatively easy. Nagel’s formulation of moral luck complicates our intuitive assignations of blame and guilt by forcing a consideration of the ways that luck–in, among other things, outcomes and antecedent circumstances–affects an actor’s personal culpability for a certain outcome. in fully accepting moral luck and arguing that Nagel’s paradox is generated only because he mistakenly assumes that the C C is an essential element of the ordinary conception of responsible agency. Freedom, Responsibility, and Determinism. In his classic “Moral Luck” (1979) paper, Thomas Nagel claims that moral luck reveals a paradox in our concept of moral responsibility. morality] altogether. All human beings are morally responsible for their actions, for moral agency is part of the very definition of being human. 1. The view that a person's actions may be causally determined, yet the person can be held morally responsible for the action. In his essay “Moral Luck” from Mortal Questions, Thomas Nagel calls into question moral agency and judgement. How is the responsible agent related to her actions; what power does she exercise over them? The central element in our concept of moral responsibility is the Condition of Control The paradox Nagel takes himself to have identified can be summarized as follows. (Williams 1981, p. 22) Some of its most important features seem to vanish under the objective gaze. Moral agency. Thomas Nagel and Bernard Williams both define and offer their ideas on how to solve the problem of moral luck. A person need not solely determine all of that for which he is morally judged, as Nagel … Smith, as we have seen, is in the end quite relaxed about moral luck. responsibility requires control threatens most if not all our ordinary moral judgments.2 My thesis, in brief, is that the problem of moral luck stems from a faulty understanding of the conditions of moral responsibility. He claims that moral luck creates a paradox that concerns our moral intuitions of agency and moral assessments of agents and their actions. Williams and Nagel are significantly less so. The paradox Nagel takes himself to have identified can be summarized as follows. In his classic "Moral Luck" (1979) paper, Thomas Nagel claims that moral luck reveals a paradox in our concept of moral responsibility. One (partial) answer is that the relevant power is a form of control, and, in particular, a form of control such that the agent could have done otherwise than to perform the action in question. The view that determinism and moral responsibility are compatible. Free does not mean uncaused, it means uncoerced. You can have both. To understand the entwinement of addiction and morality, we briefly discuss the disease model and its alternatives in order to address the following questions: Is the disease model the only path towards a ‘de-moralized’ discourse of addiction? 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