motivation for data mining in social media
He made that comment at Bloomberg Global Business Forum and someone tweeted that little nugget, which Dataminr’s algorithms detected, alerting newsrooms to what would become a viral and rankings-boosting news story for little-known news sites like Inverse.com. Is it then okay to prioritize areas based on these kinds of racial signals? In addition, a couple years ago. It’s not only about steering clear of what’s explicitly prohibited, but also about encouraging citizen engagement, a climate in which citizens can organize, all the other things that make communities successful.” Seltzer stresses that governments’ most important priority should be creating an environment that fosters the free exchange of ideas. That's why we created “The Nanalyze Disruptive Tech Portfolio Report,” which lists 20 disruptive tech stocks we love so much we’ve invested in them ourselves. Twitter reportedly has a 5 percent stake in the company and provides Dataminr with exclusive access to its “firehose,” or the full feed of users’ public posts. Accordingly, it is stored in entirely different formats. If severe enough, a chill may constitute a violation of First Amendment protections and therefore be unconstitutional. Yet Seltzer does not read it in this way, but rather as evidence that governments must be able to make a strong case that mining activities support a compelling interest. “To be able to challenge algorithms, they need to be auditable in some sense,” he explained. . Social media data in the context of crisis communication can also be analysed to gain additional, previously unknown information, if volunteers e.g. • Harvard Kennedy School is committed to protecting your personal information. The issue becomes more complex still when you consider the blurred lines between public and private information on social media. These are also the same people who probably drive windowless cargo vans filled with shiny toys. Like Kortz, he calls for a balance between the privacy of proprietary algorithms and the right to transparency. Therefore, it’s no surprise that social media data mining software is being applied in many areas. In designing social mining efforts, “transparency is a useful and necessary tool,” said Cate. It turns out that sort of surveillance is against Twitter’s policies and access was eventually blocked. “If a government was trying to defend a policing action against accusations of the chilling effect, they’d have to bring evidence showing they’d been able to police more efficiently,” said Seltzer. The other question is whether or not this action is “narrowly tailored” to achieving the goal. Again, these questions about privacy protections around social media mining seem to lack any definitive legal answer. But that doesn’t tell you the whole story. , which has a huge digital media presence, has used Dataminr for news tips on many major stories, such as the death of American student Otto Warmbier following his release from North Korea and the U.S. Congressional baseball practice shooting in Del Ray, Virginia last year. The opinion continues, “Should government someday decide to institute programs of mass surveillance of vehicular movements, it will be time enough to decide whether the Fourth Amendment should be interpreted to treat such surveillance as a search.” With the advent of social media mining, it would seem that the moment of mass surveillance has arrived, and yet the Court has yet to provide a definitive answer. We invoked the story of Cambridge Analytica at the beginning of this article for an obvious reason. Social media also drive significant changes in company and business need to decide on their policies to keep pace with this new media. That bought the company a $1.6 billion valuation, per Axios. In 2017, in a short series of investigative pieces between The Verge and MapLight, more details emerged about how Dataminr allegedly offered its services to foreign governments in ways that the more cynical of us might construe as surveillance of political dissidents. As is the case with many innovations in public safety, governments need to balance the potential value of social media mining to prevent serious crimes with the civil rights of individual residents. Or remember the story that circulated in 2017 about how Microsoft founder Bill Gates regrets the “ctrl-alt-delete” function in Windows? The chilling effect describes the result of an indirect discouragement of free speech. “Revealing algorithms tells the public close to nothing,” he said. "But, in the meantime, it’s not appropriate for organizations to be taking advantage of information asymmetries." Avoiding prejudicial social mining efforts requires making decisions based on established trends. Last month, Stephen Goldsmith and I wrote an article for CityLab detailing transparency requirements the city should consider. The Court chose to leave open the matter of whether monitoring residents en masse without any suspicion of a crime committed would violate reasonable expectation of privacy. In the Boston case, there was no evidence that these tactics helped thwart terrorist activity. Targeting words like #MuslimLivesMatter on the whims of an officer is neither an appropriate nor effective practice. When collected with a priority on civil rights and employed to the benefit of residents, social media mining can be a tool for improving residents’ lives and the safety of communities. On the other hand, identifying language that has historically correlated with crime and deploying officers to areas where it originated is necessary for prioritizing scarce resources. Like any technology, Dataminr can be used for evil as well as good. But Dataminr was there to cover the ongoing controversy for its clients. Chris Bousquet is a PhD student in philosophy at Syracuse University. One possible use case mentioned in the article says Dataminr could be used “to explore an individual’s past digital activity on social media and discover an individual’s interconnectivity and interactions with others on social media.” That’s one way to turn a movement like the Arab Spring, which relied heavily on social media sites like Twitter, into one long, deadly winter. Dataminr can count 391 million new reasons why that won’t be the case any time soon. You can use data mining to help minimize this churn, especially with social media. For example, Twitter users might be the first to report on a chemical plant explosion but they’re not likely going to know what exactly exploded that’s turning them into an army of clown-faced zombies. As long as people are willing to give away their data for free, there are plenty of companies out there willing to monetize it. During the course of their presentation, Council Member Clint Olivier asked the company reps to look up his threat level. scholars have argued that Facebook posts do not fall under this category. Kortz cited U.S. v. Jones (2012), in which a concurring opinion from Justice Sotomayor maintained that “there are certain expectations about how much effort someone will make to track you,” in Kortz’s words. February 02, 2015 - Indiana University (IU) School of Nursing and ChaCha,an online and mobile publisher,that provides a … “Beyond questions about what the First Amendment prohibits, there’s much more room to talk about what is good governance and good policy. Data mining is a fantastic tool that can extract predictive knowledge from this readily available source of consumer insight. According to Cate, the question is whether or not those factors targeted can actually predict crime. Social media data analytics is the foundation of an advanced, effective digital marketing campaign. It’s these types of welfare-focused interventions that demonstrate the real value of social media mining. The experience of Fresno City Councilmember Clinton Olivier shows that social media mining can be a misleading source of information. In 2017, Dataminr rolled out a new tool in New York City that identifies emergency situations through the Twitter firehose and alerts the city’s first responders. The company got into its own PR nightmare in 2016 when. Social data lies in between these two methods: it provides qualitative detail at quantitative scale. The Future of Social Media Mining. As Olivier colorfully explained, “even though it’s not me that’s the yellow guy, your officers are going to treat whoever comes out of that house in his boxer shorts as the yellow guy.” Thinking that Olivier was potentially dangerous, officers could use excessive precaution and force, creating an unnecessarily tense situation. “Municipal data has a lot of potential, but it’s about how cities intervene once they have data,” said Kortz. Drawing on the legal expertise of three attorneys and law professors—Mason Kortz of the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard, Fred Cate, Vice President of Research at Indiana University, and Wendy Seltzer, Strategy Lead and Policy Counsel at the World Wide Web Consortium—this article examines ethical objections to social mining in the context of policing. Keywords - Data mining, social media, clusterin g, classification. The potential for prejudice in social listening initiatives points to a broader problem common to many analytics initiatives: the algorithms employed are often not publicly available and are thus not subject to challenge from residents. Internal police records from Working Narratives revealed that one of GeoFeedia’s stated goals was to bypass privacy options offered by sites like Facebook. harvested all that personal data from nearly 100 million people to allegedly get politically motivated dirt on politicians. Companies, political parties, social and religious groups and others exploit the conversations and comments shared on social networks … 2.Data Integration: combine multiple data sources 3.Data Selection: select the part of the data that are relevant for the problem 4.Data Transformation: transform the data into a suitable format (e.g., a single table, by summary or aggregation operations) 5.Data Mining… In the end however, Seltzer admits, “we don’t know how the courts would come out.” And yet, Seltzer echoed Cate’s sentiments that the legal constraints may not be the most important consideration. “The important questions are does it work? From pictures of emergency conditions to posts about crimes in progress, users constantly inundate Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and other platforms with posts that may contain rich and timely information about events relevant to public safety. A report by the Brennan Center for Justice at the NYU School of Law showed that nearly all large cities, and many smaller ones, have made significant investments in social media monitoring tools. Social media data is generated by an entirely different technology stack than the transactional data that typically feeds CRM systems. “Monitoring social media for posts indicating criminal activity doesn’t restrict speech, but it certainly has a chilling effect,” said Kortz. The company got into its own PR nightmare in 2016 when news broke that Dataminr was selling geospatial intelligence data (i.e., location information) to police intelligence centers, which in government-speak are known as fusion centers. Indeed, a number of other Supreme Court cases do seem to contest the idea that a mosaic of public data can violate reasonable expectation of privacy. And companies like the infamous (and now defunct). data mining social media. Using Social Media to Enhance Emergency Situation Awareness Abstract: The described system uses natural language processing and data mining techniques to extract situation awareness information … Social media in the past started merely as … The second is the scope of the intelligence gathering. Find out which tech stocks we love, like, and avoid in this special report, now available for all Nanalyze Premium annual subscribers. With respect to social media mining, Kortz emphasized that while individual social media posts might be public, monitoring an individual’s posts over a period of time may still violate privacy. Even journalists for the New York Times say Dataminr is the most important tool for staying on top of breaking news. The system can reputedly “filter out fake announcements, jokesters, pranksters” and other non-events, so emergency personnel don’t waste their time chasing cats stuck in trees. The analysis of the data revealed that almost all respondents used social media. Dataminr had allowed these fusion centers to identify individual tweets and users linked to events and keywords. “A department says, ‘Here’s what we want to do with this algorithm’ and then you have a group—either internal or including community members—examine the proposal,” Cate explained. On the surface, it sounds pretty simple: Dataminr aggregates social media data in real-time, including upwards of 500 million tweets per day, and uses machine learning to identify and deliver relevant news to its clients before the breaking news headline hits CNN (though CNN is a media partner). HKS will never sell your email address or other information to a third party. However, governments must walk a fine line between collecting useful information and undermining resident privacy. Yet a trickier issue is how to manage situations where some racial or ethnic group is indeed more likely to commit a crime, not just more likely to be targeted by police. 1.2. It got its start serving hedge funds and asset managers, which can use alerts from Dataminr to react to events that might affect different markets. With specific reference to the mining and re-use of social media data, these guidelines prioritised privacy (4/4), differences between digital and conventional research (4/4), informed consent … In Jones, the police installed a GPS tracker on the car of Antoine Jones without a warrant and used information from the tracker to ultimately charge Jones with drug possession. One study into the topic of data mining in social media … For, ensuring transparency as well as public participation and education around data mining initiatives is a way of bringing expectations in line with the technological capacities possessed by governments. Cate, while in agreement that police should not profile based on traits like race or political leaning, maintains that social media mining could allow police to profile in a more productive, non-prejudicial way. Even journalists for the, say Dataminr is the most important tool for staying. InfoQ Homepage Articles COVID-19 and Mining Social Media - Enabling Machine Learning Workloads with Big Data AI, ML & Data Engineering Sign Up for QCon Plus Spring 2021 Updates (May … According to Kortz, using social listening to target residents based on political or racial indicators violates the Equal Protection Clause, a Constitutional guarantee of equal protection under the law. With a remarkable rise of social media in the recent years, the application of data mining methods to social media data is also getting increasing recognition. In the most recent iteration of Handschu in 2003, Judge Charles Haight ruled that there must be “information…which indicates the possibility of criminal activity” in order for the police to surveil specific groups. In some cases, these outcomes may be a result of historically racist police tactics. The rise of social media empires like Facebook and Twitter means that millions, if not billions, of our fellow humans are an open book these days. take pictures or videos and spread the information into the crowd. in ways that the more cynical of us might construe as surveillance of political dissidents. A policymaker might ask what happens if it turns out that using terms like #blacklivesmatter does indeed correlate with likelihood of committing a crime. In many cases, these trends are the result of a long and complex history of prejudicial treatment in many walks of American life. Starting from sharing information like text, photos, messages, many have started share latest news, and news related pictures in the Media … In light of these events, it’s clear that cities need to pay closer attention to the dangerous potential for profiling, and ensure that social mining efforts respect the civil rights of all citizens. The software monitored keywords like “gun,” “fight,” and “shoot” to identify potential crimes and the city then sent patrol officers to investigate incidents. Data mining is a rapidly growing ﬁeld that is concerned with de-veloping techniques to assist managers and decision makers … According to Mason Kortz——when implementing such initiatives, governments must be cautious not to violate “reasonable expectation of privacy.” Reasonable expectation of privacy is a Constitutional term derived from the Fourth Amendment that protects citizens from warrantless searches of places in which they have a subjective expectation of privacy that is deemed reasonable in public norms. Boosting SEO (Search Engine Optimization) of Your Website. Publishing performance data so citizens can assess the effectiveness of practices. These social network data mining provide an opportunity to make changes in education system … Citizens are therefore unable to assess the impartiality of the tools used to target people as potential criminals. Do you target these residents, put them in jail, and perpetuate systems that have made it so that these groups are more likely to commit these crimes? For Cate, targeting indicators that have shown to correlate with likelihood of committing a crime—including certain phrases on social media—is an effective way of distributing police resources in an informed way. When implementing social media mining initiatives then, governments should focus on targeting publicly available posts and institute clear guidelines to ensure their surveillance stays within legal limitations. Just in case you’re not paranoid enough, The Intercept reported earlier this year about a former VP at Dataminr named Patrick Ryan (running for office at the time of the report) who allegedly used his access to various data mining technologies to, , Dataminr Chief Strategy Officer Peter Bailey (brother of founder and CEO Ted Bailey) said that the 300-person company aims to get its arms around even more big data to provide additional context to its breaking news alerts. Three relevant to social mining initatives are: By opening social mining efforts to public redress, cities allow residents to understand, critique, and in some cases even improve these initiatives. A 2016 survey by the International Association of Chiefs of Police and Urban Institute revealed that 76 percent of officers use social media to gain tips on crime, 72 percent to monitor public sentiment, and 70 percent for intelligence gathering. But something like a. can perform an analysis of the atmosphere in real-time, adding an additional layer of information before the world turns into a post-apocalyptic hellscape. Motivation: “Necessity is the Mother of Invention” • Data explosion problem • Automated data collection tools and mature database technology lead to tremendous amounts of data stored in databases, data warehouses and other information repositories • There is a tremendous increase in the amount of data … Case law has established that information volunteered to a third party loses its privacy protections, but scholars have argued that Facebook posts do not fall under this category. In fact, the American Civil Liberties Union of California discovered Dataminr helped track social media posts relating to protests in one case. Using social media mining that leverages advances in natural language processing and machine learning to pull useful data from text and images, cities can transform these social posts into data… "Part of the necessary process must be public education," said Kortz. According to Kortz, in order to ensure due process, governments need to make their algorithms available to residents in one way or another. Copyright © 2017 The President and Fellows of Harvard College | Report Copyright Infringements | EU/EEA Privacy Disclosures | Digital Accessibility | E-mail Web Administrator, Mining Social Media Data for Policing, the Ethical Way, As one example, the City of Huntington Beach, CA used social media monitoring to inform its policing efforts, Internal police records from Working Narratives, Platforms like GeoFeedia and a similar tool called Snaptrends tied in dummy accounts. 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