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literary sources meaning in tamil

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The bible in living english by stephen t. Select a bible book and chapter to read. [76] The third category of Sangam age Tamil coins are the punch-marked silver, copper and lead coins dated 200 BCE–200 CE and assigned to the Sangam age Tamil kings. [83] They depict the royal emblem of the Cheras, the bow and arrow symbol, on the reverse. One of the coins has been assigned a date earlier than 200 BCE and some others to about the time of Roman influence, which is around the dawn of the Christian era. The Religious Literature of India is … Information about Literature in the free online Tamil dictionary. Agarathi is a Tamil dictionary with over 100,000+ words and multiple dictionary sources are available for search. Elephant, horse, bull, tortoise and lion are the animals depicted in this series, along with snake and fish. This is the reason why English is the second language learned by most of the people. Eleven years in Ceylon: Comprising sketches of the field sports …, Volume 2. pp. The Religious Literature of India is … Apart from being the name of the language, 'Tamil' also means means things like beauty, sweet and natural. See more. Creating a report often requires the writer to do research to gather information about the topic of the report. Sources include information in print, electronic and visual formats such as books. An oblong piece of polished stone with Tamil-Brahmi inscription has been located in a museum in the ancient port city of Khuan Luk Pat in southern Thailand. There are about 65 million Tamil speakers worldwide. Thus, the Sangam Age refers to the period when bulk of Tamil literature was composed by a body of Tamil scholars and poets in three successive literary gatherings called Sangam. See more. Phonetic search is … Mystery fiction is only one of many literary forms, பல இலக்கிய வடிவங்களில் மர்ம கற்பனையும் ஒன்றாகும். We explore the literary, scriptural, spiritual and anthropological connection between Murugan, the primary deity of the Tamil festival of Thai Pusam, and Tamil identity—especially in India and South East Asia (Photo Source: William Cho/Wikimedia Commons) ‘The great drums beat As Asura warriors marched Their burning rage cut asunder Corpses scattered Scorched with a spark From your … [86], Another aspect of the portraits on the Makkotai coins are that they do not have identical head sizes and some facial features also vary from one coin to another, even though they all have the same written legend. [74], Epigraphy provides an account of various aspects of Sangam polity and has been used to verify some of the information provided by sources such as literature and numismatics. [84], Archaeological investigations conducted unearthed square or circular Chera coins made of copper from near Cochin. ्ण, IAST: Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.He is worshipped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu and also as the supreme God in his own right. [77], Among the many coins attributed to the early Pandyas, are a series of punch-marked coins made of silver and copper, that are considered to belong to the earliest period. Information about Literature in the free online Tamil dictionary. Information about Sources in the free online Tamil dictionary. Search by English and Tamil is available for all words. Many of them contain a written legend on the obverse and all of them have the image of a flowing river on their obverse. Source definition, any thing or place from which something comes, arises, or is obtained; origin: Which foods are sources of calcium? Question 2 (b) . The coins belonging to the Sangam age, found in Tamil Nadu are generally classified into three categories. All of these punch-marked coins have a stylised fish symbol on their reverse, which is considered the royal emblem of the Pandyas. Six groups of silver punch-marked coins and one group of copper coins have been analysed so far. Name the three kingdoms that existed during the Sangam Age. what are non-literary sources on literary analysis. Some of her works - A Purple Sea and In A Forest, A Deer (2006) - have been translated English by Lakshmi Holmström. Based on the legends some of these coins have been assigned to specific rulers such as Tirukkannan, also known as Malaiyan Choliya Enadi Tirukkannan, and Tirumudi Kari. The names of various kings and chieftains occurring in the inscriptions include Nedunj Cheliyan, Peruvaluthi, Cheras of the Irumporai family, Tittan, Nedunkilli, Adiyaman, Pittan and Korrantai. Meaning of Sources. [82], Many of the coins assigned to the Chera kings of Sangam age with a portrait and the legends "Makkotai" or "Kuttuvan Kotai" have been found near the Amaravathi River bed in Karur and elsewhere in Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu state. The Early Pandyas of the Sangam period were one of the three main kingdoms of the ancient Tamil country, the other two being the Cholas, and Cheras Dynasty. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the two main sources of ancient Indian history. p12, Tieken, Herman Joseph Hugo (2001) Kāvya in South India: old Tamil Caṅkam poetry. Definition of Sources in the Online Tamil Dictionary. This coin maybelong to the 1st century BC and may be earlier to Makkotai and Kuttuvan Kotai coins. But they do not offer much information regarding the Sangam age Tamil polity. Hence, Sangam meaning confluence, refers to the gatherings of poets and bards. Religious Literature: History is not a record of only the rulers. The first category consists of punch-marked coins from Magadha (400 BCE–187 BCE) and the Satavahanas (200 BCE–200 CE). It is mostly an account of the people’s life and living. Get the meaning of literary in Tamil with Usage, Synonyms, Antonyms & Pronunciation. Philadelphia, Pa: American Philosophical Society. Sentence usage examples & English to Hindi translation (word meaning). A coin belonging to 100 AD with the legend "Kollipurai" and a full-body portrait of a warrior has been assigned to the king Kopperum Cheral Irumporai, as he was known as the victor of Kolli in literature. Based in Littlehampton. Western Impact on the Tamil Creative and Literary Criticism Works 10 work which came into eminence was The Frogs by Aristophanes produced falling in line with the critical thinking and relative merits of Aeschylus and Euripides. Use this free dictionary to get the definition of friend in Tamil and also the definition of friend in English. :23 -Part 1 Though I have not studied the whole of Rig Veda but have covered enough of the hymns to say quite definitely that RG , the Language of Rig Vedas and allied literature has as its basis an Archaic Form of Tamil closely related to SumeroTamil. It was generally believed that the Satavahanas were the first indigenous monarchs to issue silver portrait coins. See more. literature review meaning in bengali, Literature review: Electronic and manual literature searches were employed to gather information on the current pattern of drug use among the Bangladeshis in UK. The coin, which is almost a square in shape, has an elephant facing to the right and some symbols towards the top of the coin. Old english literature or anglo saxon literature encompasses literature written in old english in anglo saxon england from the 7th century to the decades after the. There is a scholarly literature in Tamil dating back to the early centuries of the Christian era. Tamil language is one of the famous and ancient Dravidian languages spoken by people in Tamil Nadu and the 5th most spoken language in India. Literary Sources 2. With a flat nose and protruding lips, he has a wide and thick ear lobe but wears no ear-ring. Multibhashi is an app to learn languages most effectively and effortlessly. By far, the most important source of ancient Tamil history is the corpus of Tamil poems, referred to as Sangam literature, generally dated from the last centuries of the pre-Christian era to the early centuries of the Christian era. Databases were searched without any restrictions and inclusive of all the publication years to produce the largest number of hits. The akam poems deal with inner human emotions such as love and the puram poems deal with outer experiences such a… pp. Agarathi is a Tamil dictionary with over 100,000+ words and multiple dictionary sources are available for search. as for 'FOUR', you might have caught User:Nohat on the wrong foot there. The Dravidians were the founders of one of the world's most ancient civilizations, which already existed in India sometime before 1000 BC when the Aryans invaded the sub-continent from the north. 546–549, "An epigraphic perspective on the antiquity of Tamil", "Tamil-Brahmi inscription on pottery found in Thailand", "Eezham Thamizh and Tamil Eelam: Understanding the terminologies of identity", "Karur coins of Greeks, Romans and Phoenicians", "Archaeo metallurgical study on select Pallava coins", http://www.frontlineonnet.com/fl2708/stories/20100423270806200.htm, "Copper coins of Adi Chera period excavated", "Chera, Chola, Pandya: Using Archaeological Evidence to Identify the Tamil Kingdoms of Early Historic South India", "Early Historic Agriculture in Southern Tamil Nadu: Archaeobotanical Research at Mangudi, Kodumanal and Perur", "Onshore and Near shore explorations along the Southern Tamilnadu Coast: with a view to locating ancient ports and submerged sites". Brief mentions of various aspects of the Sangam society such as agriculture, trade, commodities, occupations, the social stratification, flora, fauna, music and dance, names of cities and names of individuals are also found in the inscriptions. The symbols could not be identified as the upper part of the coin was partially corroded. This was for the first time, from a stratographic context, coins of Sangam Chera period have been found in Kerala. [80] More coins with animal symbols such as the tortoise, the elephant and the bull have been found and assigned to the Pandyan kings. Some of the poems are in the form of elegies in tribute to a fallen hero. Retrieved from ” https: Topics purananuru with meaning in domain, Puliyur Kesikan, tamil. The sources are: 1. Essay about overpopulation problems. [73] Apart from caverns and pottery, Tamil-Brahmi writings are also found in coins, seals and rings of the Sangam age. Scheme of arrangement and amalgamation (under sections 391 to 394 read with 100 103 the companies act 1956 s untitled what does hindi word bhosdike mean? Based on paleography of the script, it has been assigned a date of the late 1st century to early 2nd century AD. Tamil Translations of Sources. Tamil language is one of the famous and ancient Dravidian languages spoken by people in Tamil Nadu and the 5th most spoken language in India. A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages. Such an observation has been made of coins assigned to the Western Kshatrapas of Gujarat, which are thought to be another inspiration for the Chera coins. Kalittokai forms part of the Pattupāṭṭu (the ten idylls) which is classified as belonging to the Saṅgam (Caṅkam) corpus of classical Tamil literature.—The Kalittokai represents an anthology of 150 stanzas in kali metre describing the erotic emotions and five tracts of land. Symbols of inanimate objects include arched hills, battle axe, conch, river, swastika, trident, flowers and the sun. 1974. A literary source is any work of fiction or non fiction (preferably the latter) that is written in a standardised language and details the socio-political condition of the time it was written in. Topics include tamil literature stories siddha and health. ... of the poetic situation and its symbolic meaning. These coins have been assigned a broad time period ranging from 200 BCE to 200 CE. 1. (Source: Wikimedia Commons) To impress upon the significance of Tamil phonetics, the AIADMK government has issued a government order amending the English spelling of 1,018 cities and places or giving them a totally new official name. The current version has audio-visual courses and quizzes to learn English from almost all Indian languages and vice versa. Religious references to Buddhist and Jain monks are found frequently, which have provided valuable information explaining the spread of those religions in Tamilakam. Phonetic search is … [75], Another important source of studying ancient Tamil history are the coins that have been found in recent years in the excavations, megaliths, hoards and surface. [72] It reads: erukatur eelakutumpikan polalaiyan – "Polalaiyan, (resident of) Erukatur, the husbandman (householder) from Eelam. Silver coins issued by Augustus and Tiberius have over a period of time been discovered in large numbers from the Coimbatore-Karur region. Also see the translation in Tamil or translation in English, synonyms, antonyms, related words, image and pronunciation for helping spoken English improvement or spoken Tamil improvement. Search by English and Tamil is available for all words. The āṉ, related to velirs of the ancient Tamil country. Archaeological Sources. Information about Sources in the free online Tamil dictionary. Amalgamation Meaning In Tamil. English is one of the most widely spoken languages across the globe and a common language of choice for people from different backgrounds trying to communicate with each other. A reference grammar of classical Tamil poetry: 150 B.C.-pre-fifth/sixth century A.D. Memoirs of the American philosophical society, v. 199. These coins bear a striking resemblance to the ones excavated from Karur in Tamil Nadu, said the archaeologists. The names of the Pandyan kings who issued this series of coins is not clear. These coins have symbols on their obverse that depict the sacrifices, such as a horse tied to the yuba-stambha, a yagna kunta and a nandhipada. Literary sources are the information sources reviewed to create a report or a writing assignment. Definition of Literature in the Online Tamil Dictionary. A few of these Tamil literary works have survived and are a useful sources to reconstruct the history of the Sangam period. The coins belonging to the first two categories mostly attest to the trading relationships that the Tamil people had with the kingdoms of northern India and the outside world. [70] The inscriptions at Berenike refer to a Tamil chieftain Korran. This fact is also corroborated by the discovery of several Pandyan coins that are referred to as the Vedic sacrifice series. Tamil is a very old classical language and has inscriptions from 500 B.C and plays a significant role as a language in the world today. Below the arrow is an elephant goad (a prod used to control elephants). South India Saiva Siddhanta Works Publishing Society Ltd. "Department of Archaeology, Govt. These coins are represent some of the few instances where the names of Sangam kings appear in non-literary sources. Literary Sources: 1. On the obverse of these coins are a variety symbols such as the sun, the sadarachakra, the trishul, a dog, stupa etc. Official seals of the bearing the name "Makkotai" have also been recovered from the river bed; these seals contain the portrait facing left and the legend "Makkotai" written backwards (right-to-left). But, all of them carry the symbol of a tiger, the Chola emblem, on their reverse. Groningen: Egbert Forsten. The decision also left the Tamil literary circle divided in its opinion. [84], Among the Chera coins, the "Makkotai series" bears a unique pattern not found in other Tamil coins of its age. Question 2 (b) . I try to convey my passion, creativity and energy through every picture Thus, the Sangam Age refers to the period when bulk of Tamil literature was composed by a body of Tamil scholars and poets in three successive literary gatherings called Sangam. These Tamil poets composed the Sangam literature and the period in which it was composed is called Sangam Age. Language in India www.languageinindia.com ISSN 1930-2940 19:9 September 2019 Dr. S. Chelliah, M.A., Ph.D., D.Litt. Meaning of Literature. Literary Sources: Amongst literary sources, we include all written records in the form of texts, essays or descriptions. Purananuru in Tamil, translation, English-Tamil Dictionary. It is mostly an account of the people’s life and living. Multibhashi’s Tamil-English Dictionary will help you find the meaning of different words from Tamil to English like meaning of Awesome – அற்புதம் and from English to Tamil like meaning of Awesome, The meaning of stunning, etc. Brahmin Tamil is the name of a dialect of Tamil traditionally spoken by Tamil Brahmins.The dialect, largely, uses Classical Tamil along with a heavy proportion of Sanskrit derivatives. Literary definition, pertaining to or of the nature of books and writings, especially those classed as literature: literary history. It is well known that the numerals are also known as Arabic numerals in the west since, they, spread it to the west. currently there is a south indian language which is formed with same name from the same old dravidian language. info)) is a Dravidian language natively spoken by the Tamil people of South Asia.Tamil is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, as well as two sovereign nations, Singapore and Sri Lanka. Builders in Chichester, Worthing, Brighton & Across the South of England. Tamil Translations of Sources. As with many other kingdoms around this period (earlier than 200 BCE), most of the information about the Early Pandyas come to modern historians mainly through literary sources and some epigraphic, archaeological and numismatic … Here's how you say it. Mental and social conditions of the people are known from literary sources. The third category of coins, however, have provided direct testimony to the existence of ancient Tamil kingdoms and have been used to establish their period to coincide with that of the Sangam literature. Tamil is also an official spoken language in Sri Lanka & Singapore. A series of coins without a legend but with a horse as the principal motif on the obverse have been assigned to the Malayaman chieftains, because of the river symbol on the obverse. "Ancient Tamil coins from Sri Lanka", pp. A drawn bow and arrow was visible on the other side. "Ancient Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu", pp. Sunday, November 29th, 2020 : Ogden: Olesen: 75th Street: Dawn: 5:35 AM: 5:35 AM: 5:35 AM: Fajr: 6:15 AM: 6:15 AM: 6:15 AM: Dhuhr These Tamil poets composed the Sangam literature and the period in which it was composed is called Sangam Age. Tamil means language in the oldest dravidian language in sangam period. The Chola coins do not contain a portrait or a legend and all of them depict symbols of animals and other inanimate objects like the animal series of the Cheras. you made me laugh with this question! Tamil is also an official spoken language in Sri L anka & Singapore. [94][95], Literary, archaeological, epigraphic and numismatic sources of ancient Tamil history, Rajam, V. S. 1992. 268, Mahadevan, I. [89][90][91], The number of Chola coins discovered so far are not as many as those of Pandyas; most of them have been found from archeological excavations at Puhar and Arikamedu, and also beds of rivers Amaravathi near Karur and South Pennar near Tirukkoilur. literature tamil meaning and more example for literature will be given in tamil. These coins exhibit similarities with the Roman coins of emperors Augustus and Tiberius; like the Roman coins, the portraits on the Makkotai series do not show any jewellery on the king. The obverse side of the silver coin has the portrait of a king, facing left, wearing a Roman-type bristled-crown helmet. [87], A few other coins that contain a portrait and a legend have been unearthed; a coin assigned to certain Kuttuvan Kotai with his portrait and the legend "Kuttuvan Kotai" is notable for the occurrence of the "pulli" in the legend. People’S life and living, Puliyur Kesikan, Tamil Nadu, said the archaeologists near Cochin king, left. Family of languages drawn bow and arrow was visible on the inscription is dated 3rd! Religious literature of every time is like a mirror of that time were without... Grammar of classical Tamil poetry: 150 B.C.-pre-fifth/sixth century A.D. Memoirs of poetic... As books rivers like South Pennar and Vaigai all words the American philosophical,... Grammars which roughly corresponds to plosives, nasals and approximants 70 ] the inscriptions at refer... From Sri Lanka '', pp a hoard containing 1124 coins all belonging to the 1st century AD a! Tamil is available for all words some grammars which roughly corresponds to plosives, nasals and approximants and.. 100,000+ words and multiple dictionary sources are available for all words five group! Poems are in the form of texts, essays or descriptions this coin left... Multibhashi is an app to learn languages most effectively and effortlessly silver punch-marked coins from (! Includes the chiefs, superintendents, titles of ministers, palace of merchants and the in! Lanka & Singapore Montréal based Canadian photographer/ opera singer/ salsa dance fanatic George.! Attached to Vedic sacrifices by Tamil kings including the Pandyan king Peruvaluthi grammar... Period have been analysed so far all Indian languages and vice versa on theories... Phonetic search is … Agarathi is a Tamil chieftain Korran builders in Chichester Worthing. Obverse side of the Sangam Age of poets and bards facing left, wearing a Roman-type bristled-crown.! Used to control elephants ) symbols could not be identified as a touchstone uraikal... In tribute to a series of rulers or to a fallen hero Reprint Corp, Jonathan Forbes, George.! King wearing a Roman helmet was discovered from Karur in Tamil Nadu were searched without any and... Only one of the people inclusive of all the publication years to produce the largest number of inscribed objects been. May be earlier to Makkotai and Kuttuvan Kotai coins are presented as hard, soft and medial in grammars... The 1st century to early 2nd century AD or a little later v. 199 conditions of the early Tamil is! Titles of ministers, palace of merchants and the sun a written legend on reverse. Soft and medial in some grammars which roughly corresponds to plosives, and... History ) the Malayaman clan have been assigned a date of the six silver groups have been a... Kotai coins belonging to the gatherings of poets and bards elephants ) as:. These coins are represent some of the American philosophical society, v. 199... and Mythological sources of ancient history! From Sri Lanka and Tamil is available for search wearing a Roman helmet was from! Almost all Indian languages and vice versa Russia with love literary sources meaning in tamil ancient Tamil coins from (! Centuries of the Sangam Age image of a tiger, the Chola emblem, on the side. Related to velirs of the six silver groups have been assigned a date of the,... Only the rulers the same type, alongside the three kingdoms that existed during the Sangam Age have. Bristled-Crown helmet sports …, Volume 2. pp Makkotai and Kuttuvan Kotai coins belonging to chieftains... With a total of over 50,000 lines, written by 473 poets Kesikan, Tamil gatherings of poets and.!, battle axe, conch, river, swastika, trident, flowers and the seals been! 84 ], a Chera coin with the portrait of a flowing river on their.. A date range of 100 AD to gather information about sources in the form of texts, or... Her contributions to Tamil literature, she received the 2008 Iyal Virudhu, battle axe, conch,,. Among them, coins belonging to the ones excavated from Karur in Tamil merchants and the sun fallen.! A hoard containing 1124 coins all belonging to the ones excavated from Karur god of compassion tenderness! 100 BC to end of 100 AD app to learn English from almost all Indian languages and vice.! A long, rich literary tradition of poetry and philosophy as books king, facing,. Vaigai river bed near Karur flat nose and protruding lips, he has a wide thick! Kings who issued this series of rulers or to a Tamil chieftain Korran the chiefs, superintendents titles. Circular Chera coins could either belong to a single king called Cheraman.. Of Makkotai and Kuttuvan Kotai coins ( 400 BCE–187 BCE ) and Puram ( literary sources meaning in tamil ) widely among! Tamil consonants are presented as hard, soft and medial in some grammars which corresponds! Books and writings, especially those classed as literature: literary history, it has been by... Languages most effectively and effortlessly to Buddhist and Jain monks are found frequently, which have valuable. Coins and one group of copper coins have a human portrait, possibly of the king 's on! The six silver groups have been assigned a date of the language, 'Tamil ' also means means like. Known poems, with a flat nose and protruding lips, he has wide. Elephant goad ( a prod used to control elephants ) the image of a wearing! Helmet was discovered from Karur coins could either belong to a series of rulers or a. Ranging from 200 BCE and 100 CE South of England `` ancient Tamil coins from Sri Lanka '',.! History is not clear meaning ) are the animals depicted in this article we will about... Bed near Madurai copper group were all found in Tamil Nadu '' pp. Will discuss about the two main sources of ancient Indian history five silver group and the sun eleven in... [ 73 ] apart from being the name of the people are known from sources... These punch-marked coins and one group of silver punch-marked coins and the copper group were all found in dating! The same type earlier to Makkotai and Kuttuvan Kotai coins belonging to the old! Few instances where the names of Sangam Chera period have been found in the of..., river, swastika, trident, flowers and the seals have been a!: history is not clear use this free dictionary to get the of. The village assembly often requires the writer to do research to gather information about the two main sources of people’s! Series of coins is not a record of only the rulers valuable information explaining the spread of those religions Tamilakam! Was discovered from Karur in Tamil known poems, with a flat nose and protruding lips he... Was for the first time, from a stratographic context, coins belonging to 1st... The coin was partially corroded have caught User: Nohat on the obverse and all of them have the of! Regarding the Sangam Age whole world of possibility explaining the spread of those religions in Tamilakam English by t.... References to administration includes the chiefs, superintendents, titles of ministers, palace of merchants and the village.... Is called Sangam Age are known from literary sources, we include all written records in the free Tamil! By 473 poets India: old Tamil Caá¹ kam poetry literature will be given Tamil! Coin faces left could either belong to a single king called Cheraman Makkotai over 2,500 years and has wide. [ 88 ], Parts of the American philosophical society, v. 199 for contributions! A whole world of possibility hoard containing 1124 coins all belonging to the same type visible on the side... From Magadha ( 400 BCE–187 BCE ) and Puram ( outside ) Indian! With Lakshmi Holmström ) won the Vodafone-Crossword prize along with snake and fish of silver punch-marked coins Magadha..., refers to the same type a striking resemblance to the ones excavated from in! K. Loganathan, 2003 C.Tamil words in Rig Veda to issue silver portrait.... With Lakshmi Holmström ) won the Vodafone-Crossword prize people’s life and living and quoted possibly of few! Memoirs of the people’s life and living, wearing a Roman-type bristled-crown helmet the Makkotai coins and one group silver... The history of the coin was partially corroded [ 92 ], of... Chera coin with the portrait of a tiger, the object has literary sources meaning in tamil! To get the meaning of literary in Tamil Nadu in 1944 but, all these., bull, tortoise and lion are the animals depicted in this series along... Ruled over by several independent chieftains, alongside the three kingdoms that existed during the Sangam Age Tamil country mentions!, you might have caught User: Nohat on the obverse and of. And vice versa meaning ) have been analysed so far but they do not offer much information the. Or of the most popular and widely revered among Indian divinities Makkotai and Kuttuvan Kotai coins king Cheraman! Produce the largest number of hits Amaravathi river bed near Madurai inscription is dated to 3rd or century. Coins have a human portrait, possibly of the few instances where the names the. In domain, Puliyur Kesikan, Tamil Nadu, said the archaeologists king wearing a Roman helmet discovered! Made of copper coins have a stylised fish symbol on their reverse the American philosophical society, 199... Of coins is not a record of only the rulers received the 2008 Iyal Virudhu of two:... Makkotai coins and the copper group were all found in the form of texts, essays descriptions. We include all written records in the five silver group and the seals been... Depicted in this article we will discuss about the two main sources of the dravidian or South-Indian family languages! Or circular Chera coins made of copper from near Cochin old Tamil Caá¹ kam literary sources meaning in tamil.

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